Drugs and Medicines – KF Coulometry, Japanese Pharmacopoeia – Suitability test | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19 - JM Science

Drugs and Medicines – KF Coulometry, Japanese Pharmacopoeia – Suitability test | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19

Hiranuma Aquacounter AQ-300 Coulometric Karl Fischer Titrator
Water contents of drugs and medicines could be determined by Karl Fischer coulometric titrator. In coulometric titration, iodine of Karl Fischer reagent is generated by electrolysis and generated iodine quantitatively reacts with water.
 In the method of “Water determination (Karl Fischer method)” in Japanese Pharmacopoeia Eighteenth Edition, the suitability test is described as a verification procedure when modifying the test procedures. As premises for complying the suitability test, it is possible to select and use the appropriate KF reagent from commercially available products.
 In this report, the suitability test of Japanese Pharmacopoeia Eighteenth Edition was performed for thiamine chloride hydrochloride, also introduced in Application Data No. 9, with coulometric titration method. Please refer to Application Data No. 9 for the detail of sample addition procedure and the repeatability of measurement results for thiamine chloride hydrochloride.
Validation test with water standard KF Coulometry – Heat evaporation method | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19/EV-2000 - JM Science

Validation test with water standard KF Coulometry – Heat evaporation method | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19/EV-2000

Hiranuma Aquacounter AQ-300 Coulometric Karl Fischer Titrator
A heat evaporation method using Karl Fischer titrator combined with solid evaporator is suitable for insoluble sample in anode solution, such as plastics and inorganic compounds. The measurement of with the heat evaporation method is carried out by heating the sample while a carrier gas is blown into the evaporation chamber and introducing the evaporated moisture together with the carrier gas into the electrolysis cell.
This application introduces an example of measurement of solid water standard for validation of titrator system with solid evaporator.
Ketones, Cyclohexanone – KF Coulometry, Cooled direct injection, Azeotropic distillation | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19/EV-2000L - JM Science

Ketones, Cyclohexanone – KF Coulometry, Cooled direct injection, Azeotropic distillation | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19/EV-2000L

Hiranuma Aquacounter AQ-300 Coulometric Karl Fischer Titrator
Water content of cyclohexanone is determined by Karl Fischer coulometric titrator. In coulometric titration, iodine of Karl Fischer reagent is generated by electrolysis and generated iodine quantitatively reacts with water. Reaction formula is described below.
H₂O + I₂ + SO₂ + 3RN + CH₃OH → 2RN・HI + RN・HSO₄CH₃
2RN・HI → I₂ + 2RN + 2H⁺ + 2e⁻

Ketones and aldehydes would interfere the Karl Fischer reaction by side-reaction with methanol (formula (1)).
R₂CO + 2CH₃OH → R₂C(OCH₃)₂ + H₂O ・・・(1)
Therefore it is necessary to use methanol-free anode and cathode solution. There are commercially available reagents with a special composition for ketones and aldehydes. However, cyclohexanone has particularly a strong side reaction activity, so it is difficult to measure by direct injection method at room temperature. In the measurement of cyclohexanone, it is effective to lower the activity of side reaction by cooling or to separate cyclohexanone and water by distillation.
This application introduces an example for the water determination in cyclohexanone with cooled direct injection method and azeotropic distillation method
Ketones – KF Coulometry, Direct-Injection Methyl ethyl ketone and Acetone | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19 - JM Science

Ketones – KF Coulometry, Direct-Injection Methyl ethyl ketone and Acetone | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19

Hiranuma Aquacounter AQ-300 Coulometric Karl Fischer Titrator
Water content of ketones could be determined by Karl Fischer coulometric titrator. In coulometric titration, iodine of Karl Fischer reagent is generated by electrolysis and generated iodine quantitatively reacts with water. Reaction formula is described below.
H₂O + I₂ + SO₂ + 3RN + CH₃OH → 2RN・HI + RN・HSO₄CH₃
2RN・HI → I₂ + 2RN + 2H⁺ + 2e⁻

When the sample is liquid, generally sample is measured by direct injection into the titration cell. Anode solution containing methanol as solvent is generally used for various sample. However, in the measurement of ketones and aldehydes, since these react with methanol to produce water, the measurement result tends to be higher than the true value (formula (1)).
R₂CO + 2CH₃OH → R₂C(OCH₃)₂ + H₂O ・・・(1)

For above reason, Karl Fischer reagent without methanol should be used for water determination of ketones and aldehydes. There are commercially available reagents with a special composition for ketones and aldehydes. This chapter introduces an example for the water determination in methyl ethyl ketone and acetone. These samples are often used as paint solvents, raw materials of adhesives, and synthetic resins.
Drugs and Medicines – KF Coulometry, Thiamine Chloride Hydrochloride and Folic Acid | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19 - JM Science

Drugs and Medicines – KF Coulometry, Thiamine Chloride Hydrochloride and Folic Acid | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19

Hiranuma Aquacounter AQ-300 Coulometric Karl Fischer Titrator
Water contents of drugs and medicines could be determined by Karl Fischer coulometric titrator. In coulometric titration, iodine of Karl Fischer reagent is generated by electrolysis and generated iodine quantitatively reacts with water. Reaction formula is described below.

 H₂O + I₂ + SO₂ + 3RN + CH₃OH → 2RN・HI + RN・HSO₄CH₃

 2RN・HI → I₂ + 2RN + 2H⁺ + 2e⁻

When the moisture content is relatively high at the% level, the amount of sample added is as small as a few 10 mg. If the sample is in powder form, taking and adding samples with an “ultra-micro solid sampler” makes measurement easy and accurate. An example for water contents measurements of thiamine chloride hydrochloride and folic acid performed by with ultra-micro solid sampler are introduced here. The measurement method was determined with reference to Japanese Pharmacopeia. Reference
1) Japanese Pharmacopoeia Seventeenth Edition
Oil products – Fuel oil | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19/EV-2000L - JM Science

Oil products – Fuel oil | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19/EV-2000L

Hiranuma Aquacounter AQ-300 Coulometric Karl Fischer Titrator
Water content of oil products are determined by Karl Fischer coulometric titrator. In coulometric titration, iodine of Karl Fischer reagent is generated by electrolysis and generated iodine quantitatively reacts with water. Reaction formula is described below.

 H₂O + I₂ + SO₂ + 3RN + CH₃OH → 2RN・HI + RN・HSO₄CH₃

 2RN・HI → I₂ + 2RN + 2H⁺ + 2e⁻

Generally the fuel oil does not interfere the Karl Fischer reaction and direct injection method could apply. Suitable anode solution is selected for dissolving oil samples.
It is known that some of the oil additives interfere Karl Fischer reaction. In that case, azeotropic distillation method with Oil evaporator is appropriate. Water is separated from oil sample by distillation and introduced to electrolytic cell with carrier gas.

ASTM D6304 : Standard Test Method for Determination of Water in Petroleum Products, Lubricating Oils, and Additives by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration
Nitriles | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19 - JM Science

Nitriles | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19

Hiranuma Aquacounter AQ-300 Coulometric Karl Fischer Titrator
Water content of Nitriles could be determined by Karl Fischer coulometric titrator. In coulometric titration, iodine of Karl Fischer reagent is generated by electrolysis and generated iodine quantitatively reacts with water. Reaction formula is described below.

 H₂O + I₂ + SO₂ + 3RN + CH₃OH → 2RN・HI + RN・HSO₄CH₃

 2RN・HI → I₂ + 2RN + 2H⁺ + 2e⁻

Nitriles do not interfere the Karl Fischer reaction and direct injection method could apply. Anode solution is selected in accordance with sample solubility. General use of anode solution contain methanol as solvent. When the sample like a long chain hydrocarbon has poor solubility in methanol, anode solution containing chloroform or hexanol or toluene is used.
Amines | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19 - JM Science

Amines | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19

Hiranuma Aquacounter AQ-300 Coulometric Karl Fischer Titrator
Water content of amines could be determined by Karl Fischer coulometric titrator. In coulometric titration, iodine of Karl Fischer reagent is generated by electrolysis and generated iodine quantitatively reacts with water. Reaction formula is described below.

 H₂O + I₂ + SO₂ + 3RN + CH₃OH → 2RN・HI + RN・HSO₄CH₃

 2RN・HI → I₂ + 2RN + 2H⁺ + 2e⁻

The amines change anode solution pH to basic. In the case of an amine with stronger basicity than benzylamine (pKa = 9.34¹)) as a guideline, there are such effects as the end point becomes unclear. Therefore, when measuring a strongly basic amine, add a neutralizing agent to the anode solution beforehand to suppress the influence of undesirable effect caused by adding the sample. This application introduces an example for the water determination in cyclohexylamine(liquid), diethanolamine(liquid) and imidazole(solid). Reference
1) H. K. Hall, J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1957) 79 5441.
Ethers and Esters | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19 - JM Science

Ethers and Esters | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19

Hiranuma Aquacounter AQ-300 Coulometric Karl Fischer Titrator
Water content of Ethers and Esters are determined by Karl Fischer coulometric titrator. In coulometric titration, iodine of Karl Fischer reagent is generated by electrolysis and generated iodine quantitatively reacts with water. Reaction formula is described below.

 H₂O + I₂ + SO₂ + 3RN + CH₃OH → 2RN・HI + RN・HSO₄CH₃

 2RN・HI → I₂ + 2RN + 2H⁺ + 2e⁻

Ethers and esters do not interfere the Karl Fischer reaction and direct injection method could apply. Anode solution is selected from General-use or Oil in accordance with sample solubility. General-use anode solution contains methanol as solvent. When the sample has low solubility in methanol, the use of anode solution for oil is appropriate. One exception is a sample containing vinyl group, which reacts with KF reagent and interferes the titration. When fritless cell is used, cathode solution is not necessary.
Oil products | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19/EV-2000L - JM Science

Oil products | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19/EV-2000L

Hiranuma Aquacounter AQ-300 Coulometric Karl Fischer Titrator
Water content of Oil products are determined by Karl Fischer coulometric titrator. In coulometric titration, iodine of Karl Fischer reagent is generated by electrolysis and generated iodine quantitatively reacts with water. Reaction formula is described below.

 H₂O + I₂ + SO₂ + 3RN + CH₃OH → 2RN・HI + RN・HSO₄CH₃

 2RN・HI → I₂ + 2RN + 2H⁺ + 2e⁻

Kerosene and diesel oil do not interfere the Karl Fischer reaction and direct injection method could apply. Anode solution for Oil is selected to dissolve samples.
It is known that some of the oil additives interfere Karl Fischer reaction. In that case, azeotropic distillation method with Oil evaporator is appropriate. Water is separated from oil sample by distillation and introduced to electrolytic cell with carrier gas.
Mercaptanes and hydrogen sulfide in oil interfere Karl Fischer reaction. Since these side reactions occur quantitatively, water content result could be corrected with concentration of mercaptanes and hydrogen sulfide. 1 ppm of mercaptanes or hydrogen sulfide lead 0.3 ppm or 0.6 ppm higher water content respectively.

ASTM D6304 : Standard Test Method for Determination of Water in Petroleum Products, Lubricating Oils, and Additives by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration
ASTM E1064 : Standard Test Method for Water in Organic Liquids by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration
ASTM D4928 : Standard Test Method for Water in Crude Oils by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration
Aromatic Hydrocarbon | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19 - JM Science

Aromatic Hydrocarbon | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19

Hiranuma Aquacounter AQ-300 Coulometric Karl Fischer Titrator
Water content of Aromatic hydrocarbons are determined by Karl Fischer coulometric titrator. In coulometric titration, iodine of Karl Fischer reagent is generated by electrolysis and generated iodine quantitatively reacts with water. Reaction formula is described below.

 H₂O + I₂ + SO₂ + 3RN + CH₃OH → 2RN・HI + RN・HSO₄CH₃

 2RN・HI → I₂ + 2RN + 2H⁺ + 2e⁻

Aromatic hydrocarbons do not interfere the Karl Fischer reaction and direct injection method could apply. Anode solution is selected from General-use or Oil in accordance with sample solubility. General-use anode solution contains methanol as solvent. When the sample has low solubility in methanol, the use of anode solution for oil is appropriate. When fritless cell is used, cathode solution is not necessary.
Alcohols | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19 - JM Science

Alcohols | Karl Fischer titrator AQ-300/MOICO-A19

Hiranuma Aquacounter AQ-300 Coulometric Karl Fischer Titrator
Water content of Alcohols is determined by Karl Fischer coulometric titrator. In coulometric titration, iodine of Karl Fischer reagent is generated by electrolysis and generated iodine quantitatively reacts with water. Reaction formula is described below.

 H₂O + I₂ + SO₂ + 3RN + CH₃OH → 2RN・HI + RN・HSO₄CH₃

 2RN・HI → I₂ + 2RN + 2H⁺ + 2e⁻

Alcohols do not interfere the Karl Fischer reaction and direct injection method could apply. Anode solution is selected in accordance with sample solubility. General-use anode solution contains methanol as solvent. Alcohols with long carbon chain have low solubility in methanol. In that case, use of anode solution for oil is appropriate.
When fritless cell is used, cathode solution is not necessary.

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